A new release of the NCBI protein families profiles used by PGAP (the Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline) is now available. You can search this collection of Hidden Markov models (HMM) against your favorite prokaryotic proteins to identify their function using hmmer.
The HMMs are used as hints for the structural annotation of protein-coding genes in bacterial genomes and are also one of the sources for the names assigned to PGAP-annotated proteins presented in the Evidence-For-Name-Assignment comment block of RefSeq protein records (See for example, WP_004152100.1).
The collection comprises 12,753 HMMs that were built at NCBI, and 4,486 TIGRFAM HMMs whose ownership was transferred to NCBI in April 2018. In addition to the HMM profiles and seed alignments, a tab-delimited file containing the product names and other attributes added to the HMMs by curators is available.
85% of models were assigned a product name that can be transferred to proteins hit by the model.
7702 models have gene symbols.
14508 are supported by a least one publication.
6266 are assigned an Enzyme Commission number.
617 represent anti-microbial resistance proteins.
Product names added to 4,686 PFAM HMMs owned by EBI-EMBL and used for functional annotation by PGAP are also included.
A total of 57 million RefSeq prokaryotic proteins have been named based on these curated HMMs, and can be identified with the Entrez query “meta Evidence-For-Name-Assignment”[Properties] AND “Evidence Category=HMM”[Text Word]. See an example and more information on web displays of HMMs in a previous post.
The latest improvement in the NCBI search experience is designed to help you quickly find microbial proteins. Now when you search for a prokaryotic protein name such as recombinase RecA in NCBI’s sequence databases or in the All databases search, a high-quality representative protein sequence is highlighted in a panel at the top of the results page (Figure 1).
The result panel also allows you to quickly link to related resources such as NCBI’s new pages for protein family models, Identical Protein Groups, and SPARCLE, NCBI’s protein domain architecture resource. We also provide as-you-type suggestions so you don’t have to type out some of the long names.
Figure 1. The result for a search with recombinase RecA. The panel provides access to analysis tools, downloads, and relevant links to the protein family, the RefSeq protein, the identical protein group, and citations in PubMed.
Try these protein name searches, or your own, and use the as-you-type suggestions to assist your searches.
As part of our ongoing effort to improve your search experience, we’ve made it easier for you to find the sequence of your favorite organelle genome plus all the information and data associated with it. To find organelle genomes, search for an organism name combined with an organelle description, for example human mitochondrion, tomato chloroplast or Toxoplasma gondii RH apicoplast.
A new results panel will appear with links to the organelle genome sequence, annotated genes, and related phylogenetic and population studies. The panel appears with these searches in an All Databases search or within any of NCBI’s sequence databases including Gene, Nucleotide, Protein, Genome, Assembly. For the human mitochondrial genome, a graphical schematic of the genome allows you to navigate to individual mitochondrial encoded genes (Figure 1).
Figure 1. The organelle genome results for a search with human mitochondrion. The panel provides access to analysis tools, downloads, and other relevant results. Clicking any of the gene objects on the genome graphic links leads to the relevant Gene record, for example Gene ID: 4512 in the case of COX1.
Try it out using the following example searches and let us know what you think!
On Wednesday, September 11, 2019 at 12 PM, NCBI staff will present a webinar for people with limited experience working with gene and sequence information. You will learn about the kinds of data available for genes and sequences, how to select the most informative records, and how to find related genes and sequences using pre-computed information and the BLAST sequence search service.
Date and time: Wed, Sep 11, 2019 12:00 PM – 12:30 PM EDT
After registering, you will receive a confirmation email with information about attending the webinar. A few days after the live presentation, you can view the recording on the NCBI YouTube channel. You can learn about future webinars on the Webinars and Courses page.
We are now showing the curated evidence used for assigning names and, if possible, gene symbols, publications, and Enzyme Commission numbers on nearly 70% (83 million) microbial RefSeq proteins. This evidence includes a hierarchical collection of curated Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based and BLAST-based protein families, and conserved domain architectures.
We recently showed you a new a way to search for and view sets of orthologous genes from vertebrates. You can now get an additional set of search results that we are calling similar genes. These are related through protein architecture to the orthologous gene set and include genes from all metazoans and selected plant, fungal, and protist species. You can quickly find related genes within a species, compare them to those from other annotated metazoan genomes, and have access to other useful gene resources. To find a set of similar genes, enter a gene symbol or select the gene symbol + orthologs option from the selections menu.
For example if you search for ‘AGO2 orthologs‘, in addition to the link to orthologs from vertebrates, you’ll get a link to a set of similar genes (Genes with similar protein architectures) across a broad evolutionary spectrum that includes genes from invertebrates, fungi, and green plants (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Genes with similar protein architectures to AGO2. The original search was AGO2 orthologs, which brings up the suggestion box with the links to similar genes as well as the AGO2 vertebrate orthologs. The similar genes include entries from a broad taxonomic range of eukaryotic organisms.
If you search for ‘GH1‘, you’ll get a link to similar genes that includes members of the growth hormone family that are not part of NCBI’s vertebrate ortholog set.
Figure 2. The human subset of genes with similar protein architectures to GH1 showing other members (paralogs) of the GH1 gene family (GH2, CSH1, CSH2, CSHL1). These are not included in the ortholog set.
Try out the following searches and follow the links to the Genes with similar protein architectures
As you probably know, BLAST has been offering a new results page as an option for standard BLAST for you to test and provide feedback since April. See our post from earlier this spring for more details. We have just added new results pages (Figure 1) for the following four specialized BLAST services for you to test.
We recently updated the version 5 BLAST protein databases, (dbV5), on our FTP site to be completely accession-based. As we described in a previous post, this means they now contain the gi-less proteins from the NCBI Pathogen Project and other high-throughput projects. The v5 databases are also compatible with proteins from PDB structures with multi-character chain identifiers and will include these as they become available in our other protein systems. Only the latest version of BLAST+ (2.9.0, download) will work with the updated v5 databases and allow you to access all of the most recent protein data. At the end of September 2019, we will stop updating the version 4 BLAST databases and offer the v5 databases as the default for download.
NCBI is testing a new way to find and retrieve orthologous vertebrate genes. To find orthologs enter a gene symbol (e.g. RAG1) or a gene symbol combined with a taxonomic group (e.g. primate RAG1). Select the matching entry from the suggestions menu or you can select the orthologs option (e.g. Rag1 orthologs) to see all orthologs. Your search will return a results link to the set of orthologs provided by NCBI’s Gene resource. Click on the results link to see information for that ortholog group (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Search for Rag1 orthologs showing the link to the set of RAG1 genes from vertebrates.
The BLAST+ 2.9.0 release is now available from our FTP site. This latest release has enhanced support for the new BLAST database version (BLASTDBv5).
The 2.9.0 programs handle the new four character identifiers for chains of 3D structure records from RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB). The previous version of the BLAST databases and programs do not support these identifiers. See the MMDB News for additional details about the PDB change and the impact on NCBI Structure resources.
Another important improvement in 2.9.0 is the ability to configure the output separator for tabular and CSV output formats. See the BLAST Manual for details.
More improvements and a few bug fixes with this release are detailed in the release notes.
For more information on new database version, BLASTDBv5 (download), see the previous NCBI Insights article and the recording of our webinar. We will continue to update the BLAST databases in their current version (BLASTDBv4) until September 2019.