New human genome annotation release with MANE Select and other improvements!


There’s a new RefSeq annotation available for the human genome, and it’s quite an update!

About the release

Annotation release 109.20190607 is the first release of our new bimonthly annotation schedule as announced in a previous post.   The annotated sequences are  the latest sequences for the GRCh38, patch 13 assembly, GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39). The chromosome backbone sequences remain the  same, but we’ve added 45 patch sequences representing novel and improved sequences that the Genome Reference Consortium will incorporate into the primary assembly in the future. The new annotation places the latest curated RefSeq transcripts and functional elements on the genome but keeps the same model dataset as in annotation release 109 except when the models have been replaced by curated RefSeqs or other review. We are also flagging MANE and other RefSeq Select transcripts.  Continue reading for more details on these improvements below. You can download the updated annotation here!

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Human genome annotation will be updated every 2 months


NCBI will be updating the human genome RefSeq annotation more frequently to incorporate improvements made to genes and transcripts by RefSeq curation experts. Faster updates will allow us to include the latest datasets.

In the past, we’ve produced a full re-annotation of the human genome about once a year. The last full annotation, Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109, was in March 2018. A full annotation is produced by two main processes:

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New RefSeq annotations for big brown bat, peregrine falcon and more


Hibernating brown bat

In January and February, the NCBI Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline released new annotations in RefSeq for the following organisms:

  • Aphis gossypii (cotton aphid)
  • Balaenoptera acutorostrata scammoni (minke whale)
  • Bombyx mandarina (wild silkworm)
  • Chelonia mydas (green sea turtle)
  • Corapipo altera (white-ruffed manakin)
  • Empidonax traillii (willow flycatcher)
  • Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat)
  • Eumetopias jubatus (Steller sea lion)
  • Falco cherrug (Saker falcon)
  • Falco peregrinus (peregrine falcon)
  • Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)
  • Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant)
  • Neopelma chrysocephalum (saffron-crested tyrant-manakin)
  • Ovis aries (sheep)
  • Pipra filicauda (wire-tailed manakin)
  • Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid)
  • Solanum pennellii (eudicot)
  • Tupaia chinensis (Chinese tree shrew)
  • Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)
  • Vombatus ursinus (common wombat)
  • Xiphophorus couchianus (Monterrey platyfish)

See more details on the Eukaryotic RefSeq Genome Annotation Status page.

Join NCBI at PAG in San Diego, January 12–16, 2019


Next week, NCBI staff will attend the Plant and Animal Genome (PAG) Conference. We have several activities planned, including 1 booth (#223), 4 workshops, 1 talk and 2 posters.

Read on to learn more about what you can look forward to if you’re attending PAG this year. (Note: The listed times are Pacific time.)

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500 organisms annotated with the Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline


This month, the NCBI Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline annotated its 500th organism! The lucky winner is Pocillopora damicornis, a stony reef-building coral frequently used as an experimental model, whose larval dispersal and development are affected by environmental changes in the oceans.

Stony coral (Pocillopora damicornis)

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May – July annotations in RefSeq: ants, Chinese alligator & more


In recent months, the NCBI Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline released new annotations in RefSeq for the following organisms:

  • Alligator sinensis (Chinese alligator)
  • Athalia rosae (coleseed sawfly)
  • Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo)
  • Camponotus floridanus (Florida carpenter ant)
  • Canis lupus dingo (dingo)
  • Harpegnathos saltator (Jerdon’s jumping ant)
  • Melanaphis sacchari (aphid)
  • Pelodiscus sinensis (Chinese soft-shelled turtle)
  • Pogonomyrmex barbatus (red harvester ant)
  • Pomacea canaliculata (gastropod)
  • Sipha flava (yellow sugarcane aphid)
  • Theropithecus gelada (gelada)

See more details on the Eukaryotic RefSeq Genome Annotation Status page.